Krakow's Barbican dates to the late 15th century. The Barbican was part of the Royal Road -- a route the king marched during coronation from St Florian's Church just outside the wall, through the Barbican, then on to Wawel Castle. It's one of only three such fortified outposts remaining in Europe.
Located in the northern part of Krakow's old medieval defensive wall, it's a three floored structure with numerous observations points in it. It measures 24.4 meters in width, and has walls that are an impressive 3 meters thick -- impregnable at that time. In its day there were two walls defending the city, separated by a moat. The Barbican provided an access point into the city between these walls. Today the walls have been removed, the moat filled with dirt and transformed into a popular public space known as Planty Park.
Inside the Barbican, there is a branch of the Historical Museum of Krakow, which is dedicated to warfare. The Barbican is also used to stage special medieval events, such as jousting contests.